Salon Archive

Issue: 80

Weekly meeting report

At the weekly meeting held on 19 February 2004, the General Secretary proved that he could easily have had (and might yet have) a career as an entertainer, as he stripped off his uniform of office, unfurled the Welsh flag and poured himself (and the President) a glass of champagne before launching into a speech of fond farewell to Fellows and staff. Earlier the President had hailed the General Secretary as a great enlarger of the Society�s rituals and an inventor of events that had rapidly become part of the Society�s tradition. The General Secretary ended by saying that he would be very disappointed if his successor did not invent a few more traditions, as the Society had to be reinvented continuously to survive, and he hoped that Fellows would give their full support to any evolutionary changes to the corporate culture of the Society that he might seek to introduce.

No written account of the meeting can convey the full epic drama (nor the humour) of Dai�s farewell party, but a summary of the words spoken by the President and the General Secretary can be found in the meeting report on the Fellows� side of the Society�s website.

Forthcoming meetings

26 February: Phalanx versus Legion: a classical problem from a Renaissance perspective, by Sydney Anglo, FSA
4 March: Eight Thousand Years of History in Eighty Hectares: the interpretation of the past at Terminal 5, Heathrow, by John Lewis and Ken Walsh
11 March: Ballot

Corrections and amplifications

John Blair, FSA, has pointed out that last week�s Salon reported that one of Julian Richard�s forthcoming TV programmes was entitled �The Curse of Oxford Goal�, which might have given the impression that Julian would be reporting on the demise of Oxford United, whereas the programme promises in fact to be a fascinating look at the archaeology of Oxford Gaol, which lies within the grounds of Oxford�s medieval castle.

John Bold, FSA, writes to correct the impression given in last week�s Salon that the contents of the London NMR search room are �returning� to Swindon: �they are going there for the first time�, he says, �and a very regrettable decision it is too!�.

The return of looted pieces of armour to Paris by the Royal Armouries prompted Claude Blair, FSA, to write: �French museums are full of objects looted by Napoleon I and his armies during his European conquests, so may we assume that now the Armouries have set a precedent the French government will consider sending these back to the successors of their original owners? I rather doubt it!

�One group of such objects raises an interesting moral issue. When the Germans occupied Paris in 1940, our late Honorary Fellow Bruno Thomas and two colleagues were given the task of identifying all the pieces in the Mus�e de l'Arm�e that had been looted from German or Austrian collections, and these were returned, either to their original homes, or else to museums in the same areas. Most of them were sent back to France after the war, but a group that had been returned to the Zeughaus museum in Berlin were looted by the Russians and ended up in the stores of the State Historical Museum, Moscow. It was assumed by specialists in the West that they had been destroyed until 1966, when the participants in an international military museums congress in Moscow were admitted to these stores. So far as I know, they are still there, and are only shown to people who have obtained special permission to see them.

�The interesting moral issue, of course, is that of priority of ownership among looters and the heirs of original owners in a country defeated in war. I personally have no doubt that the heirs should have priority, but I think it unlikely that either the Russian or French authorities would agree!�

Bristol awards honorary degree to Donald Insall, FSA

Our Fellow Donald Insall, CBE, was awarded the honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws by Bristol University on 18 February for his services to conservation architecture. Delivering Donald�s oration, our fellow Mark Horton said that Donald began his architectural studies in 1942 in the midst of the blitz. Enlisting in 1944 into the Coldstream Guards, he chose to stay a foot soldier so that he could remain posted in London, and continue to study architecture in the evenings at night school.

A Lethaby Scholarship from the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings enabled him to work for six months with specialists and traditional craftsmen such as thatchers and stonemasons and he then spent 18 months was measuring Winchester College for the medieval historian, John Harvey. Helped by his father, he was one of the early pioneers of photogrammetry. Donald then went to work with the London architects, Phillimore and Jenkins. It was a good time to be in conservation, as the Government had just decided to give state aid for the repair of historic buildings, and work flowed in.

In 1958 Donald, with co-Lethaby scholar Peter Locke, decided to set up their own practice, and soon their projects included some of the great buildings of Britain: Kedleston, The Vyne, Knebworth, Raby Castle, Battle Abbey, Petworth, Speke Hall, Croft Castle and Chevening. The practice developed a strong relationship in particular with the National Trust.

In the 1960s Donald made sure that Chester did not suffer the same fate as so many historic towns and cities in having their historic heart ripped out, and his work there paved the way for Conservation Areas to be created, and conservation officers appointed by local councils all over England. Donald�s practice also acted as the co-ordinating architects for the large team of architects, craftsmen, builders and archaeologists involved in the post-fire restoration of Windsor castle.

Donald�s practice has now grown to over 100 staff, while Donald himslef was awarded the OBE in 1981, and the CBE in 1995, and a number of medals, including most recently, Europa Nostra�s Medal of Honour.

Megan Parry starts work as Property Manager at Kelmscott Manor

Megan Parry has succeeded Helen Webb as Property Manager at Kelmscott Manor and has started work for what will undoubtedly prove to be a busy season, with a major TV documentary due to be shown later this year on the life of William Morris (about which more in due course). Before starting work at Kelmscott, Megan was Business Manager at the Northmoor Trust, which owns and manages an estate of 300 hectares, including Little Wittenham Nature Reserve and Wittenham Clumps, in South Oxfordshire.

The Clumps (named after two historic hilltop beech plantings on Castle Hill and Round Hill) have important Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman archaeological sites, including a magnificent Iron Age hill fort on Castle Hill. This will be the subject of a TV programme next week, when Channel 4's Time Team programme on Sunday 29 February will feature an HLF-funded excavation that Megan was involved in last summer, supervised by Oxford Archaeology. For further information about the work of the Northmoor Trust see their website at .

Review of Church of England archive collections

The Church Times (20 February) has a story saying that the Church Commissioners are reviewing four different Church of England archive collections with a view to possible cost-cutting measures. The review, chaired by the First Church Estates Commissioner, Andreas Whittam Smith, is to look at the �arrangements for the future housing and conservation� of the documentary heritage currently held in four different venues: Lambeth Palace Library, the Church of England Record Centre (Galleywall Road, London SE16), the Council for the Care of Churches and Cathedrals Fabric Commission and the Hurd Library, at Hartlebury Castle, in Worcestershire. The review group will be considering both the long-term ownership of the collections, and the question of access to them.

A spokeswoman for the Church Commissioners said that the issue of the cost of housing these collections would also be considered, but stressed the importance of input from interested parties who use the collections. �We genuinely want to know both about access and how often they are used. But of course we will be considering whether our money is being spent in the best way.�

Interested parties have until the end of February to submit comments to the First Church Estates Commissioner, The Church Commissioners, 1 Millbank, London SW1P 3JZ.

Stonehenge enquiry

Taking her cue from Charles Dickens�s Bleak House, Maev Kennedy�s Guardian report on the opening of the Stonehenge enquiry on 17 February began with the words: �Fog buried Stonehenge yesterday. The nose-to-tail drivers grinding past one of the most famous prehistoric sites in the world could barely see the stones, lapped in grey Wiltshire mist. Just down the road in Salisbury, a fog of paper and arguments rose around the monument, as the public enquiry opened into one of the most bitterly contested road development plans in the country�.

She further went on to say that the enquiry will last ten weeks, and will hear more than one-hundred witnesses, representing fifty different interest groups, including two separate orders of druids. She also reminded readers of the background to the enquiry: �it is eleven years since the parliamentary public accounts committee blasted the facilities at Stonehenge as �a national disgrace�. Many of the same witnesses also spoke at the enquiry in 1995, only to see the recommendations for a long tunnel thrown out on cost grounds, then the entire road scheme dropped in 1996, then reinstated again in 1998.�

Three days later the newspaper carried an editorial on the same subject, this time quoting Pepys, whose diary records: �I single to Stonehenge, over the plain and some prodigious great hills ... came thither, and find them as prodigious as any tales I ever heard of them, and worth going this journey to see.� It points to the incongruous partnership of classy National Trust members and local druids united in their desire to see the Government opt for the longest possible tunnel beneath Stonehenge and concludes: �Stonehenge is the first real challenge for road building after the Newbury by-pass. Nearly a third of the cost of that scheme went on securing the site against Swampy and his mates. A more listening department has defused that level of protest [on this occasion]. But elsewhere in the UK many roads are still being built to a price, not to a specification. Stonehenge will only be a real victory if the highest possible standards are applied not only where the protesters come from the establishment, but wherever a new road is built.�

King Henry VIII�s football boots

The discovery by Dr Maria Hayward that Henry VIII owned one of the first pairs of purpose-built football boots gave the press free rein last week to indulge in the sort of headlines normally reserved for the back end of the newspaper. �Henry VIII footballer � but who would dare referee?� asked The Times, and The Guardian posed the question: �Who�s the fat bloke in the number eight shirt?�.

Maria Hayward, based at the Textile Conservation Centre in Winchester, made the discovery in the 1547 inventory of the king's clothes taken just after his death. This records the payment of four shillings in 1525 (when the king was aged 34) to the Henry�s personal shoemaker, Cornelius Johnson, for �one pair sotular [a Latinised Saxon word for shoe] for football�.

Four shillings (the equivalent to �96 today) compares favourably with the cost of David Beckham�s �115 Adidas Predator boots, but is more than the cost of the king�s jousting boots, suggesting that they were made of an expensive material � perhaps imported rather than English leather.

Our Fellow Diarmaid MacCulloch, history professor at St Cross College, Oxford, was reported in The Times as saying that football was notoriously violent in the sixteenth century. Teams would be made up of hundreds of men from rival parishes, and the pitches would stretch for miles. An account of a match between Lavenham and Brent Eleigh in Suffolk in the 1490s records that a player was killed. In 1548, shortly after the king�s death, his son, Edward VI, banned football on the ground that it incited riots.

Maria Hayward has also produced an edition of the 1542 Whitehall Palace inventory for eventual publication by the Society.

First Viking boat burial for England

Martin Wainwright, of The Guardian, reported on 17 February that archaeologists in Yorkshire have found what they believe to be the first known Viking ship burial south of Hadrian's Wall. The site was discovered by metal detectorists and reported under the terms of the Treasure Act. The location has been kept secret for security reasons, but the initial finds have gone on show at the Yorkshire Museum in York, including �two silver pennies minted under Alfred the Great, seven other silver pennies, part of a silver dirham coin from Baghdad, swords, two sets of scales with weights, and a pile of small silver ingots�.

A collection of clinch nails, used on Viking longships, is the strongest clue to a ship burial. Simon Holmes, of the Yorkshire Museum, said: �I am 95 per cent certain it is a boat burial ... perhaps of a trader-warrior who, when he wasn't fighting, was involved in commercial activities across the Viking world. If this is indeed the case, it will be the first discovered in England.�

The future of Apethorpe Hall

An article appeared in The Times of 21 February suggesting that the Culture Secretary, Tessa Jowell, has issued a compulsory purchase order (CPO) for Apethorpe Hall but that the validity of the CPO is being challenged by Harold Winton, the president of Queens Park Rangers Football Club and the current owner of the Hall. A planning enquiry has been scheduled for the end of February at the request of Mr Winton who wants to have the CPO lifted. Mr Winton says he wants to test the validity of state intervention if a viable market solution exists.

In June last year, when the Government first began to initiate compulsory purchase action, Simon Thurley, English Heritage Chief Executive, said: �This late-fifteenth-century building is one of the most important and majestic country houses in England. Without decisive action this unique and irreplaceable building will be lost forever.�

Apethorpe�s owner at the time was Mr Wannis Burweila, the Libyan owner of the World Trade Centre in Athens and numerous hotels. The Times report says that Mr Winton bought the Hall from Mr Burweila for �1.35 million, acting on behalf of a consortium which wanted to convert the building into five homes. Last year English Heritage wrote to Mr Winton asking for a credible and acceptable scheme for the repair and proper preservation of the Hall and went ahead with the CPO when this was not forthcoming. Mr Winton subsequently put the Hall back on the market and has apparently agreed to sell the building to Simon Karimzadeh, heir to a �120 million trading empire, for �750,000 on condition that the CPO is lifted.

Historic Scotland to remain a government agency

A review of the structure and functions of Historic Scotland has recommended that it remains as a government agency responsible to the Scottish Executive. The review was announced in December 2002 by the then Minister for Tourism, Culture and Sport, Mike Watson. The current Minister, Frank McAveety, has accepted all the recommendations, and has begun work to implement them. He said: �The review has concluded that all of the functions currently delivered by Historic Scotland are necessary, and that the organisation should remain as an executive agency within the Scottish Executive Education Department. However, the review has identified a clear need for significant cultural change within the organisation and I have asked the chief executive of Historic Scotland and the Head of Scottish Executive Education Department to start work on a programme to deliver the necessary changes. As part of this process independent external members will be appointed to the Historic Scotland management board.�

The Minister added that: �I especially welcome the recommendation that, following consultation with stakeholders, all of the policies which impact on the historic environment should be pulled together into an overarching policy statement ... I am publishing a paper outlining the key principles which will underpin this policy statement and form the basis of discussions with stakeholders.� The review report can be downloaded from the Scottish Executive website.

SAVE launches �Don�t butcher our market� campaign

SAVE Britain�s Heritage has started a campaign to rescue the General Market Buildings at London�s historic Smithfield meat market. SAVE argues that the proposed demolition of the entire west frontage of Smithfield market will lead to the replacement of a varied, attractive and historically important Victorian street frontage with a �bland and featureless slab-like office block of a kind which has already made Farringdon Road one of London's grimmest and most dismal streets�.

The scheme to develop the Smithfield block has been drawn up by the City of London Corporation, which owns Smithfield, as part of a development agreement with Thornfield Properties. The plan has not yet gone to the City's elected councillors for discussion or a vote.

The Farringdon Road section of the market, the part the public most often sees, was lined with thriving butchers' shops, pub, cafes and restaurants until the mid 1990s, when the leases ran out and the business were closed and boarded up. SAVE says the neglected buildings should be restored and a Covent Garden-style solution adopted for Smithfield, with a mixed commercial community.

Commenting on the SAVE report, the Corporation says the buildings �were significantly damaged by enemy action during the second world war and extensive repairs carried out in the 1950s were unsympathetic to the original buildings. The location of these buildings, coupled with the size and distribution of the site does not lend itself to a Covent Garden arrangement.�

For further information about SAVE�s campaign, see the SAVE website.

Public rejects museum closures as a tactic to reduce council spending

Recent consultation exercises suggest that council-tax payers are far from happy at the way local authorities seek to save money by cutting back on heritage and local museum services. Residents of Worthing, East Sussex, for example, recently refused to support cuts to museum services in return for reduced council tax rises. Worthing council asked residents to choose between a possible 14.9 per cent rise in tax and cuts to cultural and education programmes. Fifty-five per cent of respondents said that museum services were a higher priority than keeping council tax down.

Kingston Museum, in Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey, was also recently saved by a local campaign to prevent it from closing one day a week. The campaign was led by the Surrey Comet newspaper, which showed that the museum closure would save a mere �15,000 out of the authority�s �160m annual budget.

In Leicester, the Jewry Wall Museum remains under threat of partial closure. The museum is situated next to the remains of a Roman bathhouse and contains a walk-through exhibition of the history of Leicester and its growth from the Roman town of Ratae Corieltauvum, through Saxon to medieval times. Jewry Wall now has one full-time curator, compared with ten curators in 1994 and current budget proposals for the museum service include reduced opening of at least one day a week.

The All-Party Parliamentary Archaeology Group is co-hosting an open seminar at the Stevenson Lecture Theatre, Clore Education Centre, British Museum, on 10 March 2004, from 2.30pm to 5.30 pm to look at ways of lobbying decision-makers and the wider public against such cutbacks. If you wish to attend please register with Jayne Phenton, Administrator, Society of Antiquaries of London.

Was the Duke of Urbino behind the Pazzi conspiracy?

One of the most famous and dramatic moments in Florentine history was the attempt of the Pazzi family to wrest control of the city from the Medici in April 1478 by launching an assassination attempt on the lives of Lorenzo and Guiliano de Medici during mass in the cathedral. The crime was all the more heinous because the Medici had just given a banquet in honour of the Pazzi. The assassins and their victims embraced as they entered the cathedral (a ploy perhaps to check whether the Medicis were carrying any weapons). When the host was raised at the most sacred point in the mass, the assassins struck, killing Giuliano at once. Lorenzo resisted and managed to fight his way to the sanctuary where he slammed the heavy bronze doors in the face of his attackers.

Now Professor Marcello Simonetta, a historian at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, has found and deciphered a letter which suggests that the mastermind behind the conspiracy to wipe out the Medici was none other than Federico da Montefeltro, the Duke of Urbino, famed throughout Christendom as a wise and humane ruler, head of a court which Castiglione, in The Courtier, idealised as the most civilised in Europe.

The letter, which has been hidden in the private Ubaldini archive at Urbino for 526 years, is written in diplomatic code and was sent by the Duke to his ambassadors in Rome. �The letter reveals that Federico da Montefeltro secretly sent a contingent of his own forces to the gate of Florence, ordered to occupy the city once the brothers were dead,� Professor Simonetta says. �The Duke shared his plans with Pope Sixtus IV and the leader of the Neapolitan Army, and tried to persuade Milan to come in as well�.

When the people of Florence heard about the assassination attempt, they took their own swift revenge, hacking some of the conspirators to pieces, and hanging others from the windows of the Palazzo Vecchio. The Duke of Urbino's force melted away, and Lorenzo, later named �Il Magnifico�, went on to preside over a golden age of artistic achievement in Florence and to use his diplomatic skills to achieve a period of lasting peace in Italy, after decades of inter-family rivalry.

What the text explodes, says Professor Simonetta, is �the image of Federico da Montefeltro as the ultimate humanist, deeply interested in neo-platonic philosophy, and always portrayed as a good friend of ... Lorenzo de Medici. Now we know he tried to murder him.�

Gangs using stolen art as plea-bargaining card

An article in The Independent last week revealed the reason why thieves steal well-known works of art, even though they have no hope of being able to sell them. According to the head of the Metropolitan Police's arts and antiques unit, criminal gang members use the stolen masterpieces as potential �get out of jail free cards� in case they are arrested for other offences.

Detective Sergeant Vernon Rapley told The Independent: �If you bury the painting in a dustbin in a wood and you wait until you get arrested for another crime, such as armed robbery, you can tell the police you know about a �nasty villain� who stole the painting, which could be worth �13m or �14m. If you are instrumental in the recovery of the painting you can get a credit from sentencing for the armed robbery. The concern is that it's becoming more and more common.�

The article also reported that the Art Loss Register has compiled a list of the artists whose works are most frequently stolen worldwide, showing that the most commonly stolen works were by artists that criminals could easily identify as famous and therefore valuable. Pablo Picasso heads the list (551 works stolen), followed by Joan Mir� (356), Marc Chagall (309), Salvador Dal� (231) and Pierre-Auguste Renoir (209).

�Poetic� donation leads to restoration of Limoges enamel crucifix

Two parts of a Limoges enamel crucifix have been reunited again, thanks to the generosity of Edward de Unger, a British-based German lawyer. Mr Unger�s plaque, depicting the crucified Christ against a background of the sun, moon and thirty-three stars (representing Christ�s age at the time of his Crucifixion), was separated from the altar cross for which it was made in 1895. The cross has been in store at the British Museum ever since, never placed on view because of its incompleteness.

By the 1930s the central plaque was so famous that Hitler even had it on his list of works suitable for a museum of Europe�s greatest artistic treasures which he intended to create for his own glorification. More recently, researchers at the British Museum preparing a definitive catalogue of Limoges enamels came across an illustration in an old sales catalogue and traced its ownership to Mr de Unger who lent the plaque to the museum for an exhibition in 1981. Now Mr de Unger has decided to donate the plaque, so that the two parts of the cross, probably made for a church in Spain, can be reunited. James Robinson, curator of the medieval collections at the BM, says the surprise gift is �poetic ... an absolute joy�, adding that the cross will now go in display in the medieval gallery. He is hoping that publicity surrounding the donation will encourage the unknown owner of the last missing piece of the cross � a plaque of St John from the right-hand arm � will make contact with the museum.

New study shows Neanderthals are a different species

DNA evidence suggest that Homo sapiens and Neanderthals could not have inter-bred because they are different species. Nevertheless, some scientists persist in portraying Neanderthals as significant contributors to the evolution of modern Europeans, arguing that the DNA evidence is inconclusive or flawed. A new study � this time using computer imaging techniques to compare the skulls of modern humans and Neanderthals as well as eleven existing species of non-human primates � has found strong evidence to support the view that Neanderthals differ so greatly from Homo sapiens as to constitute a different species, and not a sub-species.

The research team, led by Katerina Harvati, assistant professor of anthropology at New York University, used a new technique known as geometric morphometrics to measure the degree of variation between and amongst 1,000 primate skulls. The scientists measured fifteen standard craniofacial landmarks on each of the skulls and used 3-D analysis to superimpose each one in order to measure their shape differences, irrespective of size. The specimens measured included Neanderthal fossils, Upper Palaeolithic European modern human fossils, and recent human populations, as well as data from living African apes and Old World Monkeys.

The study, entitled Neanderthal taxonomy reconsidered and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that the differences measured between modern humans and Neanderthals were significantly greater than those found between sub-species or populations of the other species studied. The data also showed that the difference between Neanderthals and modern humans was as great or greater than that found between closely related primate species.

�What the data give us is a robust analysis of a widely representative sample of primates, and provide the most concrete evidence to date that Neanderthals are indeed a separate species within the genus Homo�, Harvati concluded.

Is history just too academic?

An article in The Independent on Sunday (on 22 February) quotes TV historian Simon Schama as saying that today�s historians, with a few notable exceptions, have lost the ability to inspire the public with tales of the past. �History�s adventure�, he says, �has become a bit lost. It�s not as explosive or as exciting as it used to be ... we need to recover our reckless literary courage�. He blames history�s demise on the �juggernaut of academic history, which is obsessed with data and footnotes rather than good story telling�.

Our Fellow David Starkey, who has lost non of his reckless literary courage, firmly agrees and says that: �A lot of books have become rarely animated footnotes. In fact, they should really be written upside down, with the footnotes at the top and a drip of text underneath. � Footnotes, he adds, are not new: �what is new is our worship of them.�

On the other hand, Professor J L Nelson, President of the Royal Historical Society, points to the fact that history book sales account for 3 per cent of the total UK book market, worth �32 million a year. �History is very much more diverse in the things it covers now�, she says, �and there are more people studying history � it�s more popular than ever.�

Fellows� books

At the Society�s meeting on 12 February, David Hill, FSA, discussed the role of Laurence Nowell in preserving (through his transcripts) precious Anglo-Saxon manuscripts lost from the Cotton Library during the fire of 1731. Further light on the contents of that very important library can be found in The Early Records of Sir Robert Cotton's Library, written by our Fellow Colin G C Tite and published by the British Library shortly before Christmas. The book deals with the formation, cataloguing and use of the Cotton Library, mainly in the first half of the seventeenth century, and prints the loans records that survive while the library was in the family's ownership. A copy of the book has been donated to the Antiquaries' Library.

Burlington House revealed

A special Royal Academy Architectural Forum, called Burlington House Revealed, will take place in the Reynolds Room at the Royal Academy on 12 March, at 6.30pm. The forum will explore the history of Burlington House and examine the conservation and restoration of the John Madejski Fine Rooms in the Royal Academy. Joe Friedman, architectural historian, will elaborate on Burlington House as a �town palace� and its evolution in relation to Piccadilly. Giles Worsley, FSA, will examine the specifics of decoration in the painted interiors. Those involved in the restoration will summarise the underlying principles and conservation issues. For further details see the Royal Academy website.


Royal Armouries, Museum Director
Salary �50,000, closing date 8 March 2004

An exceptional individual is required to shape and direct policy for communication with the museum�s audiences and maximise the quality of service and display. Candidates must have previous experience of successful museum or attraction management, and have the intellect, credibility and flexibility to work with people at all levels. To request an application pack, send an email to Sarah Slater.

National Trust, External Relations Officer
c �25,000, closing date 10 March 2004

Though you would not know it from the parsimonious salary, there is a really big and interesting job to be done here in co-ordinating the National Trust�s International Relations Project, working with governmental, environmental and heritage bodies around the world to develop an international network of organisations inspired by the work and founding principles of the Trust. As the advert says: �this role offers the right individual the opportunity to help influence heritage practice and policies around the globe�. For further information, send an email to

Liverpool Cultural Company, Historic Environment Co-ordinator
Salary �29,835 to �34,413, closing date 10 March 2004

Liverpool Cultural Company is the body charged with delivering the city�s European Capital of Culture Year 2008. The Historic Environment Co-ordinator�s job is to work with English Heritage on heritage programmes associated with 2008, �harnessing the historic environment to tell the story of the multi-cultural and multi-layered development of the city�. For further details send an email to recruitment, quoting job reference ELL/1711/1298.